1. Nodding syndrome
Nodding syndrome is a neurological condition and it was first documented in the United Republic of Tanzania (URT) in the 1960s. Later, it was reported in the Republic of South Sudan in the 1990s and in northern Uganda in 2007. Normally, this syndrome affects children between the ages of 5 and 15 years. This leads to a progressive cognitive dysfunction and a neurological deterioration which ultimately results in stunted growth and a characteristic nodding of the head. Nodding Syndrome is known to occur in the southern region of the United Republic of Tanzania (URT), South Sudan and northern Uganda and very less is known about the disorder.
2. The Peruvian Meteorite Illness
The Peruvian Meteorite Illness occurred when the Carancasmeteorite fell on September 15, 2007. A large chondritic meteorite crashed near the village of Carancas in Peru. This place is close to the Bolivian border and to Lake Titicaca. It was clearly seen as a boiling water coming out of the crater and particles of rock and cinders were fallen. Post the accident, the local villagers were approached to ask about the impact which made them sick and resulted in nausea and vomiting.
3. Fields’ disease
Fields’ disease is said to be the rarest disease in the world. It is named after two twins, Catherine and Kirstie Fields from Wales. Doctors have said it to be a neuromuscular disease and the disease doesn’t have a medical name. The muscles within the body slowly deteriorate thus, limiting the body movements. The girls’ disease has been studied by doctors from all over and since the disease is so rare and unknown, doctors aren’t sure of the future of this disease. The disease has since limited the lives of the girls, it has bound them to wheelchairs thus making tasks even like writing difficult for them.
Elephantiasis is an obstruction of lymphatic vessels which causes extreme swelling of skin and tissues. This occurs typically in the legsor testicles. The cause of this is infection by a mosquito-borne parasite . Till date, over 40 million people have been affected by the condition. There are medications available to kill the parasite and early diagnosis might be more helpful to the person. There are surgical options for curing the testicles but not for the limbs.
5. Vampire Syndrome
Vitamin D in humans synthesized by sunlight, but too much exposure to the Sun’s UV rays can damage the skin. As per a survey, 1 in 1 million people have xeroderma pigmentosum and are extremely sensitive to UV rays. People suffering from this disorder must be completely shielded from sunlight otherwise they will experience extreme sunburns and damage of their skin. Exposure to sunlight may also lead to skin cancer.
Xeroderma pigmentosum is caused by a rare recessive mutation of the nucleotide excision repair enzymes. These enzymes correct damaged DNA that can be caused by UV rays when functioning normally. The enzymes do not work properly and DNA damage persists for people suffering from this disease. There might be ways to prevent or cure this, but the simplest way is to avoid sunlight contact, thus making living like a vampire. That is why, the syndrome is called as Vampire's syndrome.
6. Exploding head syndrome
Exploding head syndrome is a condition that causes the sufferer to occasionally experience an enormously loud noise. This noise can be originated from outside or from the person's own head. It is usually described as the sound of an explosion or waves crashing against rocks, or the sound of roaring or a loud music. The occurrence of noise can happen when the person is awake or within 2 hrs of sleep. The noise is never because of a dream. The sound is said to be very loud and not accompanied by pain. Sufferers often feel a sense of fear and anxiety after an attack . The cause of the exploding head syndrome is not known;but it is said that it can be as a result of stress and tension.
7. Aquagenic urticaria
Aquagenic urticaria,which causes a human to get hives when the skin comes in contact with water.While physical urticarias are not uncommon , people can develop hives within minutes in response to ordinary stimuli including heat, cold and pressure. Sensitivity to water is far less common here. However, people with Aquagenic urticaria produce histamine from mast cells in the skin which causes redness and rashes on the body if they touch water. Some people suffering from this disease can develop rashes even within 10 seconds of contact with water; thus, they are restricted to vegetables and cola for their food.
8. Sweating sickness
Sweating sickness is a mysterious and highly virulent disease which struck England and later Europe in a series of epidemics. It the first began in 1485 and it ended in 1551. The onset of symptoms were very dramatic and spontaneous, with death often occurring within hours. The cause is the most mysterious aspect of the disease. It is said that the general dirt and sewage of the time might have initiated the infection. The first outbreak was at the end of the Wars of the Roses which clearly implies that it may have been brought over from France by the French mercenaries. It was judged noteworthy in comparison to the other illnesses of the time because it was common amongst the rich than the poor.
9. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity is a condition in which people experience medical symptoms that they believe are caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields. Sufferers of electromagnetic hypersensitivity report responding to electromagnetic radiation at intensities, although effects of electromagnetic fields on the body are established. The various studies till date have found that people suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity are unable to distinguish between the exposure to real and sham electromagnetic fields.
10. Twentieth-Century Disease
It is also known as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). Twentieth-Century Disease is described as a chronic condition characterized by adverse effects from exposure to low levels of chemicals. Also, exposure to other substances in modern human environments can also lead to multiple chemical sensitivity. Suspected substances include smoke, pesticides, plastics, synthetic fabrics, scented products,petroleum products and paints. Studies have proved that people suffering from MCS do not react to chemicals when they are unaware of it, but they react in when they believe they are being exposed to a chemical substance. The reason behind this disease is still unknown, though studies are being carried out to find causes and solid ground reasons.